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Lecture 16 – Thanksgiving Weekend 13 Oct 2003 No Lecture Today. Lab and seminars have been cancelled for this week. Lecture 17 – Casting and Integer Operators 15 Oct 2003 int x = 1L; error a long cannot be stored in an int • Notice that the above value could easily be stored as an int – It is the type that is too big not the value – This is called a narrowing conversion & it can be done • Just cast the value from type long to type int before storing • To cast just write ‘(the new type)’ in front of the value int x = (int) 1L; now it works • More Examples… byte x = (byte) 36; byte x = (byte) 200; this works this also works even though value (127) will store - 56 float x = 5 + (float) 2.4; this works Integer Operators & Small Data Types: • Look at the following example: L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 short x = (short) 5; short y = (short) 3; short z; z = x + y; • This produces a compiler error! • Says: in L5 we are storing an int into a var of type short • The reason: all arithmetic operators turn small data types (below int) into an int • Now correct: L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 short x = (short) 5; short y = (short) 3; short z; z = (short)(x + y); Random Numbers: Define variables: int y, n, a, b; double x; • To generate a “random” number 0.0 <= x < 1.0 x = Math.random(); • To generate a random number 0.0 <= x < n x = Math.random() * n; • To generate a random number 0 <= y <= n-1 x = (int)(Math.random() * n); • To generate a “random” integer 1 <= y <= n y = (int)(Math.random() * n) + 1; • To generate a random number between a <= y <= b, where a < b y = (int)(Math.random()* (b – a + 1)) + a; Lecture 18 – Numerical Methods 17 Oct 2003 • Java’s math class provides a variety of methods for performing advanced mathematical operations. Example Methods Return the sine of argument Return the largest integer less than or equal to argument Return the nearest integer to the argument double Math.sin(double) double Math.floor(double) double Math.rint(double) • The argument that you put between the parentheses following the method name can be any expression that produces a value of the required type. Example Constants p: Return 3.14159276… e: Returns 2.71828182… double Math.PI double Math.E • The Math class is a part of Java’s library of methods – called Java’s Application Programming Interface (API) – List of all methods available is at Sun’s website: http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/api/index.html Rounding to a Chosen Decimal Place: • Converting an ugly looking double value to a “nice” real number with n decimal digits: – Multiply by 10n – Round to the nearest integer – Divide by 10n e.g. round 5.2871513234 to 2 decimal places… • Java automatically drops trailing 0s after the decimal place – So $12.30 would print as $12.3 • There is nothing we can do about this yet – Java does have sophisticated number formatting facilities – We will learn about them later when we become more familiar with the use of Objects • For now to force the second decimal place – check to see if there is only one decimal digit x * 100 % 10 == 0 – Add a “0” to the number through string concatenation – Handle the first decimal place (in the case of $12.00) similarly Converting Strings to Numbers: • We know that “512” is not the same as 512 – “512” is a string – 512 is an int • If we get a number in the form of a string it would be nice to turn it into a number so we can do arithmetic on it • Java provides methods to do just that Strings to Integers …Integers • there are various ‘number’ classes that hold useful methods when dealing with numbers – same as Math class that holds useful methods for arithmetic – called wrapper classes • class called Integer has a method called parseInt – Integer.parseInt(String numAsString) – takes a string and turns it into an integer String number = “123”; int n = Integer.parseInt(number); System.out.println(“n = ” + n); System.out.println(“2n = ” + 2*n); Screen Output: n = 123 2n = 246 …Doubles • class Double has a method called parseDouble – Double.parseDouble(String numAsString) – takes a string and turns it into an double String number = “123.45”; double n = Double.parseDouble(number); System.out.println(“n = ” + n); System.out.println(“2n = ” + 2*n); Screen Output: n = 123.45 2n = 246.9